determined by an inability to move in response to touch. C. elegans develop through four larval stages following hatching and prior to adulthood. Adult C. elegans are reproductive for about the rst week of adulthood followed by approximately two weeks of post-reproductive adulthood prior to death. Life span is most commonly measured in the laboratory by maintaining the worms on the surface of a nutrie- agar medium (Nematode Growth Medium, NGM) with E. coli OP50 as the bacterial food source (REF). Alternative culture conditions have been described in liquid media; however, these are not widely used for longevity studies. Longevity of the commonly used wild type C. elegans hermaphrodite (N2) varies ? from 16 to 23 days under standard laboratory conditions (20 C, NGM agar, E. coli OP50 food source). Life span can be increased by maintaining animals at lower ambient temperatures and shortened by raising the ambient temperature. Use of a killed bacterial food source, rather than live E. coli, increases lifespan by 2-4 days, and growth of adult animals in the absence of bacteria (axenic growth or bac- rial deprivation) increases median life span to 32-38 days [3, 23, 24]. Under both standard laboratory conditions and bacterial deprivation conditions, wild-derived C. elegans hermaphrodites exhibit longevity comparable to N2 animals .
1. Introduction and end of life pathologiesNorman Wolf and Steven Austad 2. Animal size, metabolic rate, and survival, among and within speciesSteven Austad 3. Hormonal Influences on Aging and LifespanAdam Spong and Andrzej Bartke 4. Exploring mechanisms of aging retardation by caloric restriction: studies in model organisms and mammals. Rozalyn Anderson, Ricki Colman & Richard Weindruch 5. Cell Replication Rates In Vivo and In Vitro and Wound Healing as Affected by Animal Age, Diet, and Species. Norman Wolf 6. The Comparative Biology of Sirtuin Function in LongevityDaniel L. Smith, Jr., and Jeffrey S. Smith 7. The Role of TOR signaling in Aging. Matt Kaeberlein and Lara S. Shamieh 8. Mitochondria, Oxidative Damage and Longevity: What Can Comparative Biology Teach Us? Yun Shi, Rochelle Buffenstein and Holly Van Remmen 9. Comparative genomics of aging. Jan Vijg, Ana Maria Garcia, Brent Calder and Martijn Dolle 10. Changes in lysosomes and their autophagic function in aging. The comparative biology of lysosomal function. Samantha J. Orenstein and Ana Maria Cuervo 11. Telomeres and telomerase. Inter-species comparisons of genetic, mechanistic and functional aging changes. N.M.V. Gomes, J.W. Shay, W.E. Wright, 12. Cardiac Aging. Dao-Fu Dai, Robert J. Wessells, Rolf Bodmer, Peter S. Rabinovitch 13. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Aging. David J. Marcinek, Jonathan Wanagat, Jason J. Villarin 14. Aging of the Nervous System. Catherine A. Wolkow, Sige Zou and Mark P. Mattson 15. Aging of the Immune System across Different Species. Janko Nikolich-Zugich and Luka Cicin-Sain